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APA Style Guide: References

This guide is designed to help students learn about APA style and cite sources for their research.

Quick Tips

References appear at the end of the research paper. Centre the heading "References" at the top of the page two spaces below the running head and page number. Entries are double-spaced and formatted with a hanging indent, i.e. the first line is flush with the left margin and subsequent lines are indented one half inch.

In general, references are arranged alphabetically by the authors' last names. If no individual author is listed and a corporate author or title is used as the first element in a reference, it is arranged alphabetically with all other references by the first significant word in the name or title (exclude A, An or The). If titles begin with a number, alphabetize the references as though the numbers were spelled out, e.g. 2010 is alphabetized as "Two thousand and ten."

If there are two or more works by the same author, they are listed in date order with the earliest date listed first.

If there are two or more works by the same author with the same date, they are sub-arranged alphabetically by title. A lowercase letter (a, b, c, etc.) is added to the end of the date for citation purposes, e.g. (Carpenito-Moyet, 2010b).



Alzheimer's Association. (2008, March). Behavioral and psychiatric symptoms of Alzheimer's disease [Brochure]. N.p.: Author. (2008, March 4). Diabetes overview [Video file]. Retrieved from http://

Benner, P., Tanner, C., & Chesla, C. (2009). Expertise in nursing practice: Caring, clinical judgment, and ethics (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer.

Botkin, D. B., Saxe, H., Araujo, M. B., Betts, R., Bradshaw, R. H. W., Cedhagen, T., . . . Stockwell, D. R. B. (2007). Forecasting the effects of global warming on biodiversity. Bioscience, 57, 227-236. doi:10.1641/B570306

Canada. Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. (2011, November 30). Departing employees. Retrieved from Job Bank web site:

Canadian Ophthalmological Association. (2007). Diabetes and the eye [Brochure]. Ottawa, ON: Author.

Carpenito-Moyet, L. J. (2010a). Invited paper: Teaching nursing diagnosis to increase utilization after graduation. International Journal of Nursing Terminologies and Classifications, 21, 124-133. doi:10.1111/j.1744-618X.2010.01158.x

Carpenito-Moyet, L. J. (2010b). Nursing diagnosis: Application to clinical practice (13th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott.

Critchley, T. (2008). The rainforests on our doorstep. Ecologist, 38(1), 38-42.

Diabetic retinopathy. (2008). In Stedman's medical dictionary for the health professions and nursing (6th ed., p. 437). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters/Lippincott.

Diabetic retinopathy. (2012, March 19). In MedTerms medical dictionary. Retrieved from

The 4 best business scanners. (2010). Retrieved from

Galván, A. (2012). Risky behavior in adolescence: The role of the developing brain. In V. F. Reyna, S. B. Chapman, M. R. Dougherty, & J. Confrey (Eds.), The adolescent brain: Learning, reasoning, and decision making (pp. 267-269). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Gaye, M. (1971a). Mercy mercy me (The ecology). On Very best of Marvin Gaye [CD]. N.p.: Universal Music Group. (2008).

Gaye, M. (1971b). What's going on? [CD]. [Recorded by Artists Against AIDS Worldwide]. New York, NY: Columbia Records. (2001).

Hughston Foundation, Inc. (2007). Insulin pump [Digital image]. Retrieved from

Kanakis, S. J., Watts, C., & Leichter, S. B. (2002). The business of insulin pumps in diabetes care: Clinical and economic considerations. Clinical Diabetes, 20, 214-216. doi:10.2337/diaclin.20.4.214

Leclerc, C. M., & Kensinger, E. A. (2008). Effects of age on detection of emotional information. Psychology and Aging, 23, 209-215. doi:10.1037/0882-7974.23.1.209

Maple trees endangered, watchdog says. (2012, January 11). The Toronto Star, p. A7.

mhuang. (2011, November 23). Brain of psychopaths: Differences in function and structure [Web log message]. Retrieved from NeuroLaw Blog on Baylor College of Medicine web site:

Ontario. Ministry of the Environment. (2007). Conserving water in Ontario [Brochure]. Toronto, ON: Author.

Parmesan, C. (2008). Global climate change. In AccessScience. Retrieved from

Quinn, L. (2004). Diabetes: Management. In M. D. Mezey et al. (Eds.), The encyclopedia of elder care (pp. 213-215). Amherst, NY: Prometheus.

Rosenthal, M. J. (2007). Diabetes. In J. E. Birren (Ed.), Encyclopedia of gerontology (2nd ed., Vol. 1, pp. 409-417). San Diego, CA: Elsevier.

Sinclair, R., Hart, M. A., & Bruyère, G. (Eds.). (2009). Wicihitowin: Aboriginal social work in Canada. Halifax, NS: Fernwood.

Thibodeau, L. (Producer), & Grupp, E. (Director). (2010). Lippincott's video guide to psychiatric mental health nursing assessment [DVD]. Baltimore, MD: Wolters/ippincott.

Townsend, A. R., Vitousek, P. M., & Houlton, B. Z. (2012). The climate benefits of better nitrogen and phosphorus management. Issues in Science & Technology, 28(2), 85-91. Retrieved from

U. S. Department of Health and Human Services (Producer). (2009, March 16). A need to know [Video podcast]. Retrieved from

Vogel, J. M., & Lazar, B. (2006, July/August). Global cooling: Science and myth. Weatherwise, 63(4), 24-31.

Wicks, R. J. (2006). Overcoming secondary stress in medical and nursing practice: A guide to professional resilience and personal well-being. [Adobe Digital Editions version]. Available from

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