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APA Style Guide: Web Resources

This guide is designed to help students learn about APA style and cite sources for their research.

Quick Tips

Preparing a reference for a web site can be difficult as standard publication information is often missing. If there is no individual author for the text, you may start the reference with a corporate author, usually the organization or company responsible for the web site's content.

If no corporate author is available, you may begin the reference with the title of the web site, followed by the date.

If there is no date provided and no indication of when the site was last updated, you may substitute n.d. (or "no date") for this element. The format for full dates is always (year, Month day), with the month spelled out in full (e.g. 2011, November 15).

If the title of the web site is not obvious, you may use a description of the text in square brackets to replace this element, e.g. [Review of Kodak desktop scanners]. Do not italicize the description. If the title of the work is part of a greater whole (e.g. a web page that is part of a larger web site), do not italicize the title.

The most important part of your reference is the web site's URL.  Make sure the URL is current and that it works when entered into an Internet browser.

If the publisher of the web site is important (U.S. National Institutes of Health, Harvard University, etc.), insert the publisher's name before the URL, e.g. Retrieved from Health Canada web site:

Web Resources

Information required for an Internet or web site referencce includes:

  • Author(s) or other contributors
  • Date of publication or date web site was last updated
  • Title of web site and/or web page
  • Paragraph number for direct quotes if pages are not numbered
  • URL for web site or DOI (Digital Object Identifier)

See also the style guide for references to books and articles from electronic databases.

Examples of References:

Canada. Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. (2011, November 30). Departing employees. Retrieved from Job Bank web site:

The 4 best business scanners. (2010). Retrieved from

Hughston Foundation, Inc. (2007). Insulin pump [Diagram]. Retrieved from

Kanakis, S. J., Watts, C., & Leichter, S. B. (2002). The business of insulin pumps in diabetes care: Clinical and economic considerations. Cllnical Diabetes, 20, 214-216. doi:10.2337/diaclin.20.4.214

mhuang. (2011, November 23). Brain of psychopaths: Differences in function and structure [Web log]. Retrieved from NeuroLaw Blog on Baylor College of Medicine web site:

Examples of In-Text Citations:

The HP Scanjet N6350 allows you to share scanned documents as it can easily connect to your computer network ("The 4 best business scanners," 2010).

An exit interview should always be voluntary (Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2011).

The cost of pump therapy, especially since pumps often need to be replaced or upgraded, may be significantly higher than those of other forms of insulin administration (Kanakis, Watts, & Leichter, 2002).

MRI studies have shown that psychopaths demonstrate reduced activity in the amygdala and orbito-frontal cortex (mhuang, 2011).

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