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APA Style Guide: Web Resources

This guide is designed to help students learn about APA style and cite sources for their research.

Quick Tips

Preparing a reference for a website can be difficult as standard publication information is often missing. If there is no individual author for the text, you may start the reference with a corporate author, usually the organization or company responsible for the website's content.

If no corporate author is available, you may begin the reference with the title of the website, followed by the date.

If there is no date provided and no indication of when the site was last updated, you may substitute n.d. (meaning "no date") for this element. The format for full dates is always (year, Month day), with the month spelled out in full (e.g., 2022, January 15).

If the title of the website is not obvious, you may use a description of the text in square brackets to replace this element, e.g. [Review of Kodak desktop scanners]. Do not italicize the description. If the title of the work is part of a greater whole (e.g. a webpage that is part of a larger website), do not italicize the title.

The most important part of your reference is the website's URL.  Make sure the URL is current and that it works when entered into an Internet browser.

Web Resources

Information required for an Internet or website reference includes the following:

  • Author(s) or other contributors
  • Date of publication or date website was last updated
  • Title of website and/or webpage
  • Paragraph number for direct quotes if pages are not numbered
  • URL for website or DOI (Digital Object Identifier)

Examples of References

Hughston Foundation, Inc. (2007). Insulin pump [Diagram].

Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. (2011, November 30). Departing employees,

Kanakis, S. J., Watts, C., & Leichter, S. B. (2002). The business of insulin pumps in diabetes care: Clinical and economic considerations. Clinical Diabetes, 20, 214-216. doi:10.2337/diaclin.20.4.214

Women in tech: Cambrian, Sofvie aim to inspire Sudbury students. (2023, May 2).

Examples of In-Text Citations

Parenthetical citations:
An exit interview should always be voluntary (Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2011).

The cost of pump therapy, especially since pumps often need to be replaced or upgraded, may be significantly higher than those of other forms of insulin administration (Kanakis et al., 2002).


'Open' Book

Open Educational Resources (OER) are resources created to be freely shared online. You may see the terms Pressbooks, eCampus Ontario, BCcampus, OpenStax,  Creative Commons, among others.

Example of a Reference

Seneca College. (2022). Skoden: Teaching, talking, and sharing about and for reconciliation. Open Library.

Examples of In-Text Citations

Parenthetical citations:
Indigenous art, teachings and history are now being shared using 21st century tools such as social media. (Seneca College, 2022).

Narrative citations:
According to Seneca College (2022), “A pretendian is someone who claims Indigenous identity without being able to back this claim up with connections to an Indigenous community.” (Pretendians, Chapter 10)
NB. this in-text citation uses page title and chapter because the work does not have page numbers.

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