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APA Style Guide: Other

This guide is designed to help students learn about APA style and cite sources for their research.

Unpublished Work

Because personal communications do not provide recoverable data, they are not included in a reference list, but are cited in text only. Some personal correspondence (such as archived letters) is recoverable and should be included in a reference list as archival material.

Proceedings of meetings or symposia can be published in books or in periodical form.  If so, they should be cited in the same format as a book or periodical. Paper presentations that have not been published should also be cited in a reference list. Provide the month and year of the presentation, the title of the presentation, and the name and location of the meeting.


How to cite your own translations

If you translate a passage from one language into another on your own in your paper, your translation is considered a paraphrase, not a direct quotation.

Artifical Intelligence (ChatGPT)

Interactive generative artificial intelligence software, more commonly known as AI and chatbots, include natural language processing (NLP), large language models and its newer version large multimodal model (LLMs), ChatGPT (chat generative pretrained transformer), Siri, Cortana, Google Assistant, Alexa, and many other forms. Your instructor(s) may not deem any of these platforms legitimate. Be cautious if you use it and always cite its use in your references. AI has been known to "hallucinate" answers with gibberish, bias, disinformation, wrong answers, and guess at what it thinks the user wants to hear.

AI generated text cannot be relocated the way that books (ISBN) and articles (DOI) can so consider including a copy of ChatGPT text as an appendix.


ChatGPT is a "large language model"; ChatGPT-4 is a "large multimodal model". Either of these wordings must be used as part of the reference in square brackets. In-text and reference examples:

"quoted text" (OpenAI, 2023)

OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 23 version) [Large language model].

Source: Seneca College


How to cite ChatGPT

This post outlines how to create references for large language model AI tools like ChatGPT and how to present AI-generated text in a paper.

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