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APA Style Guide: Audiovisual Material

This guide is designed to help students learn about APA style and cite sources for their research.

Quick Tips

There are often many contributors to the production of audiovisual material. You do not have to include all of them in your reference, but may emphasize those contributors who are most essential to the work.  In general, the following rules apply:

For a film, videorecording, or DVD, list the producer and director as authors.  A corporate author may also be listed as a producer.

For a music recording, list the composer/songwriter as author. You may also include the performer's name in square brackets after the title if different from the writer. If the recording date differs from the copyright date, include it in brackets after the name of the distributor.

For an episode from a television series, list the script writer and director as authors and the producer as you would an editor for a book.

Audiovisual Material

Information required for an audiovisual referencce includes:

  • Producers, directors, performers or other significant contributors
  • Copyright date
  • Title
  • Location of distributor
  • Distributor
  • URL (for digital media retrieved from the Internet)

Examples of References: (2008, March 4). Diabetes overview. Retrieved from http://

Gaye, M. (1971). Mercy mercy me (The ecology). On Very best of Marvin Gaye [CD]. [London, England]: Universal Music Group. (2008).

Gaye, M. (1971). What's going on? [CD]. [Recorded by Artists Against AIDS Worldwide]. New York, NY: Columbia Records. (2001).

Thibodeau, L. (Producer), & Grupp, E. (Director). (2010). Lippincott's video guide to psychiatric mental health nursing assessment [DVD]. Baltimore, MD: Wolters/Lippincott.

U. S. Department of Health and Human Services. (Producer). (2009, March 16). A need to know [Video podcast]. Retrieved from

Examples of In-Text Citations:

It is often difficult to correctly cite an audiovisual resource in parentheses within the text of an essay.  It is recommended that you introduce the work by incorporating the citation into the wording of the essay itself the first time it is mentioned.  In subsequent citations, you may simply use a parenthetical citation.

Example of first citation:

In the DVD entitled Lippincott's video guide to psychiatric mental health nusring assessment (Thibodeau & Grupp, 2010), it is indicated that a psychiatric evaluation should... etc.

Example of second citation:

A behavioural assessment requires effective communication technique (Thibodeau & Grupp, 2010).

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