Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

APA Style Guide: Electronic Databases

This guide is designed to help students learn about APA style and cite sources for their research.

Qucik Tips

When preparing a reference for a book or an article retrieved from an electronic database, follow the same style guidelines as you would for a print book or article.

You do not have to include information for the electronic database as this information may change over time or the database itself may be inaccessible to the reader of your paper.

Include the DOI if one is available.

If you cannot find a DOI for the document, you should include a URL for the publisher's web site to assist the reader in locating a copy of the publication.

Electronic Databases

Information required for an electronic database referencce includes:

  • Author(s) and/or editor(s)
  • Date original document was published
  • Title of book or article
  • Title of journal, magazine or newspaper (for articles)
  • Volume, issue and page numbers (for articles)
  • Page number or paragraph number (if pages are not numbered) for direct quotes
  • DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or URL for publisher's web site

Examples of References:

Leclerc, C. M., & Kensinger, E. A. (2008). Effects of age on detection of emotional information. Psychology and Aging, 23, 209-215. doi:10.1037/0882-7974.23.1.209

Parmesan, C. (2008). Global climate change. In AccessScience. Retrieved from

Townsend, A. R., Vitousek, P. M., & Houlton, B. Z. (2012). The climate benefits of better nitrogen and phosphorus management. Issues in Science & Technology, 28(2), 85-91. Retrieved from

Wicks, R. J. (2006). Overcoming secondary stress in medical and nursing practice: A guide to professional resilience and personal well-being [Adobe Digital Editions version]. Available from

Examples of In-Text Citations:

Extinction is also a term used to describe "the loss of a distinct subspecies or species within a given geographic area" (Parmesan, 2008, para. 13).

Emotional information becomes more apparent with age as we acquire the ability to detect all emotional images when compared to neutral images (Leclerc & Kensinger, 2008).

According to Wicks (2006), it is often impossible for nurses to care for patients adequately given the constraints of today's health care work environments (p. 16).

Subject Guide

Profile Photo
Marnie Seal
Library, Room 3021V
705-566-8101 ext 7651